Types of outlook: the search for truth
How did the Universe form? Who created the Earth?What is the origin of man? What is the meaning of human life? What happens after death? What is good and evil? Where to seek justice? Each person asks himself questions that can be classified as "eternal". No generation of people could answer them unambiguously. However, depending on the answers, different types of outlook can be traced.
The system of concepts about the world and man determines our worldview. Its structure and historical types are briefly covered in this article.
In the structure of the worldview, the following components are distinguished:
- Informative. This knowledge and understanding of nature, society, history.
- Value-normative. They constitute the ideals, norms and values of a person and society.
- Emotionally-volitional. Reflects the psychological attitude to live in accordance with their beliefs.
It is customary to distinguish between the ordinary and theoretical levels of the world view.
The ordinary world view is formed spontaneously,based on everyday experience and common sense. It is not without contradictions, because at this level it is impossible to penetrate into the inner essence of the diverse and complex relations of the "man-world" system.
Critical comprehension of ideological beliefs becomes possible at the second, theoretical level. The theoretical core of the world outlook of our era is philosophy.
Before its appearance, the world order was explained by the mythological and religious types of the worldview.
Mythology is a form of humanculture, containing the beginnings of religion, morality, science and art. Mythological worldview is inseparable from the emotional sphere, this is a fantastic reflection of reality. A characteristic feature of this type of thinking is syncretism - the unity of knowledge and faith, real and imaginary. Mythological worldview operates with images and is artistic.
At the heart of the religious worldview is thebelief in supernatural forces. The mythological and religious types of worldview unite the priority of the sensory perception of reality. The difference is that religion attempts to explain the world order by dividing the world into a natural and supernatural world. There is a cult and a system of rituals, aimed at "establishing relations" with the world of the gods.
With the development of civilizations of Ancient China, India,Attempts to rationally explain the world began to appear in Greece. The term "philosophy" was introduced in the sixth century. BC. and belongs to Pythagoras. From Ancient Greek this word is translated as "love of wisdom." Philosophy and the types that preceded itworldview unites the object of comprehension; targetphilosophical research - through the private and general to know the universal, that is, to go beyond the finite and to touch the infinite. This thinking has become known as transcendental, because it transcends science and practical experience.
So, philosophy is the basis of system-rational thinking, revealing the meaning and laws of the development of the world and man. However, "eternal" questions are still open.