The causes and consequences of obesity in children, women and men
Excess weight always encouraged people toabout his appearance. It is known that the psychological aspect of this problem affects women especially. In addition, excess weight is often the object of ridicule by peers in children's groups. It is worth remembering that obesity is not just one of the constitutional features, but rather a serious problem. First, it affects the psychoemotional state of a person. But this is not the worst thing. After all, there are more serious consequences of obesity. These include serious diseases of the heart, liver and other organs.
Obesity from a medical point of view
Excess body weight occurs quite often.Many people have a predisposition to obesity. Others "gain" extra pounds during life. Often this is facilitated by endocrine pathologies, malnutrition, passive lifestyle, etc. It is understood that obesity is a disease requiring medical care. Some people who are overweight do not want to admit this problem, referring to the fact that they are satisfied with their body. Indeed, the emotional background does not suffer for everyone. Nevertheless, even if a person feels comfortable, it is necessary to get rid of excess weight. After all, the negative consequences of obesity are a scourge of most patients. From a medical point of view, weight gain is considered to be an increase in the body mass index (BMI). This indicator is calculated by a special formula: weight / height (meters2). Normally, the BMI is 18-25 kg / m2. If this figure is 25-30, then doctors pay attention to the patient's overweight. With a BMI of more than 30 kg / m2is diagnosed with obesity.Depending on the body mass index, the degree of severity of the pathology is distinguished. In detecting this disease it is necessary to find out the causes, consequences of obesity, to assess the patient's awareness of the seriousness of such a diagnosis. Correct statement of the problem will help to adjust the person to fight excess weight.
Lesion of internal organs in obesity
The consequences of obesity from the physicalhealth is the defeat of internal organs. Because of excess weight, virtually all functional systems suffer. Especially heavily obese hurts the heart and liver. With a long-term pathology, degeneration of the organs takes place, and as a result they cease to function normally. In addition, overweight can cause the development of diseases of the osteoarticular system. With a BMI of more than 40 kg / m2It is difficult for a person to perform not only some kind ofphysical activity, but also daily movements. Walking even for short distances leads to the appearance of dyspnea and increased heart rate. The consequences of obesity in women - it's also a breakdown of the reproductive function. Often, patients with excess weight complain about irregularities in the menstrual cycle, infertility. Also, the disease can promote the formation of gallstones, the development of pancreatitis, osteoarthritis.
Obesity of the liver: consequences of pathology
One of the serious consequences of obesity ishepatic dystrophy (steatohepatosis). This disease leads to a gradual disruption of the functioning of the body. Despite the fact that the pathology is quite serious, it rarely has clinical manifestations. Steatomematosis is a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced with fat tissue. As a result, the body increases in size, its consistency becomes flabby. The affected liver is not capable of neutralizing toxic substances entering the body. In addition, it does not perform other functions. They include: the formation of blood components, bile. As a result, the process of food digestion is disrupted, hormonal changes take place, etc. Chronic hepatic failure gradually develops.
Obesity: psychological consequences
Excess weight is considered not only physical, but alsopsychological problem. Women are more complex because of obesity. Some of them begin to feel shy of their own body, as a result, problems arise in their personal lives and behavior. As a result of developed complexes, patients become suspicious, self-esteem suffers. It is believed that the effects of obesity are apathy and depressive conditions. Similar problems can occur in both women and men.
The psychological consequences of obesity are greatestaffect the sick of childhood. Excess weight causes ridicule on the part of others, as a result of which the emotional state of the child worsens. As a result, low self-esteem, self-doubt, depression, and psychopathy are formed. Because of the desire to lose weight, adolescents go to extreme measures, which can only aggravate the situation (the development of anorexia).
Visceral obesity: consequences of the disease
In most cases, middle-aged peopleVisceral obesity occurs. It is characterized by an increase in the upper half of the trunk. Fatty fat is especially pronounced in the abdomen, hands, face. With a high BMI and waist circumference greater than 90 cm, the diagnosis is "metabolic syndrome". This condition is not considered an independent disease. Nevertheless, it is a risk factor that provokes severe cardiovascular and endocrine pathologies. Metabolic syndrome leads to the development of the following diseases:
- Angina pectoris. This pathology is characterized by ischemic changes in the myocardium. In the absence of treatment, it can lead to the development of heart attack and heart failure.
- Atherosclerosis is a pathology in which fatty plaques accumulate on the inner walls of blood vessels. It leads to blockage of the arteries, as a result of which ischemia of the organs develops.
- Diabetes mellitus type 2.Occurs when blood glucose levels rise in people over 40 years old. Diabetes mellitus aggravates the course of vascular pathologies, leads to progressive impairment of vision, nephro- and neuropathy.
- Arterial hypertension. Despite the fact that the increase in blood pressure is not associated with obesity, the risk of developing this pathology in people with overweight increases by more than 2 times.
Often patients have a combination of these pathologies. It is worth noting that these diseases are one of the main causes of death of the population.
Severe complications for obesity
The severe consequences of obesity are complicationslisted diseases, which can lead to disability and death. In addition to liver failure, they can include the following conditions:
- Myocardial infarction. Characterized by a sudden emergence of acute ischemia and necrosis of the heart muscle. It develops against the background of coronary artery atherosclerosis and unstable angina.
- Acute ischemic impairment of cerebral circulation. It comes because of the obstruction of the vessels by atherosclerotic plaques and a thrombus.
- Acute congestive heart failure. To this group of pathologies include PE, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema. In most cases, these conditions lead to death.
- Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. It is the cause of gangrene development.
These conditions are not directly related to obesity. Nevertheless, with excessive body weight, the risk of their development increases.
Obesity in children: causes and consequences
To the etiological factors of the development of obesity inchildren include malnutrition, hormonal disorders (increased production of the hormone of hunger - leptin), endocrine diseases, genetic predisposition to excess body weight. The earlier to find out the cause of the pathology, the lower the probability of complications. The consequences of childhood obesity are the same as in adults. But, given the early onset of the disease, dysfunctions of the internal organs may appear faster.
Prevention of the effects of obesity in adults and children
The main preventive measure isdecrease in body weight. For this purpose, consultation of a dietitian and endocrinologist is necessary. Overweight is recommended to reduce gradually. It is important to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates. To prevent cardiovascular diseases, special drugs are prescribed - statins and fibrates.