How to organize aquarium lighting correctly
Buying an aquarium, you should take into account the manyNuances that will create ideal conditions for its inhabitants. One of them is light. The vital activity of fish and plants depends on it. Properly selected artificial lighting provides them with normal living conditions.
Lighting for an aquarium is usually chosen,based on the requirements for the functional life-support of its inhabitants. Fish, depending on the species, refer to the light in different ways. For example, residents of savannahs living in the waters of streams and the upper layers of lakes need a lot of light, but "tenants" of caves and muddy waters, on the contrary, require light much less.
To date, the lighting of the aquarium is mainly provided by two types of lamps: luminescent and incandescent lamps. The choice of light source power is based on the following relationship:
- 0,4-0,5 W per 1 liter of volume (fluorescent lamps);
- 1 W per 1 L (incandescent lamps).
Often aquarists choose incandescent lamps.They are available and relatively productive, and their light is perfectly absorbed by many plants and has a beneficial effect on fish. The disadvantage of these is only one - low efficiency, no more than 5%. This type of lighting converts 95% of the energy into heat. In this regard, the lamp must be equipped with a fan in order to reduce the transmitted heat. This lamp can not be propped against the glass. It should be placed above the water in such a way that light penetrates to a depth of at least 10 and not more than 30 cm. Convenience of its use is that the illumination of an aquarium of 100 liters can be organized with just one lamp (120 W ). Despite these "pluses", the most popular were luminescent ("daytime") lamps.
This type of lamps has a high coefficientuseful - 20%, and they are 70-80% more economical. The disadvantage (albeit relative) can be recognized only in their dimensions - they are larger than conventional light bulbs, but they provide the most uniform illumination in the aquarium. Speaking about the uniformity, it is worth to clarify that they are installed over water. This is due to the fact that most plants are suitable for vertical supply of light. Less commonly used is horizontal aquarium lighting. This approach makes the aquarium outwardly more attractive, but is dangerous because floating plants can die because of a lack of light.
In order to ensure correct lightingaquarium, it is worth choosing a lighting device very carefully. A significant role in this is played by the spectrum of light emitted, in particular, this applies to the owners of marine fish and plants. Freshwater fish are less demanding of the light source, but sea inhabitants, including invertebrates, react quite sharply to the wrong light. If the lighting for the aquarium is ill-conceived, then there is a high probability that the life of the "inhabitants" will become much shorter.
The lamp is selected with a small margin of power.This is due to the fact that part of the light is absorbed by water. In addition, the lamps become obsolete, and their nominal power decreases with time. About how well arranged lighting in the aquarium, the best "tell" the plants. After 30-40 days after installing the lamps, pay attention to the following:
- the color and size of the leaves. If everything is OK, then the lighting is good;
- the oxygen content in the water. At the beginning of the day, the indicator should be 5 mg / l, in the evening to 10 mg / l;
- narrow leaf blades indicate that the lighting in the aquarium is too strong.
The lighting of the aquarium should not work constantly.It is immediately necessary to determine the time of day-night operation. The light should not be continuously switched on for more than 10-12 hours. The installation of an additional timer can prompt the control task.
Before buying a lighting fixture,consult with an expert. There are a number of reasons for this. First, it will save you unnecessary financial costs. Secondly, this will not only depend on the maintenance of life in the aquarium, but also on its further development.