How did the peasants live?
Each person should be interested in the past of his people. Without knowing the story, we can never build a good future. So let's talk about how the ancient peasants lived.
The villages in which they lived, reached about 15 yards. It was very rare to find a settlement numbering 30–50 peasant households. In each cozy family courtyard there was not only a dwelling, but also a barn, a barn, a poultry house and various additions for the farm. Many residents also boasted gardens, vineyards and gardens. Where the peasants lived can be understood from the remaining villages, where the courtyards and signs of life of the inhabitants are preserved. Most often the house was built of wood, stone, which was covered with reeds or hay. In one cozy room they both slept and ate. In the house there was a wooden table, several benches, a chest for storing clothes. We slept on wide beds, on which lay a mattress with straw or hay.
The diet of the peasants included cereals from various grains, vegetables, cheese products, and fish. During the Middle Ages, baked bread was not made due to the fact that it was very difficult to grind grain into a state of flour.Meat dishes were characteristic only for the holiday table. Instead, sugar farmers used honey wild bees. For a long time, the peasants were engaged in hunting, but then in its place became fishing. Therefore, the fish were much more often on the tables of the peasants than the meat that feudal lords indulged in.
The clothes worn by the peasants of the middle ages were very different from the period of the ancient ages. The usual clothing of the peasants was a linen shirt and pants to the knee or to the ankle. Over the shirt they wore another one, with longer sleeves, - blio. For outerwear used cloak with a buckle at shoulder height. The shoes were very soft, sewn of leather, and there was no hard sole at all. But the peasants themselves often went barefoot or in uncomfortable shoes with a wooden sole.
The legal life of the peasants
The peasants who lived in the community were dependent on the feudal mode. They had several legal categories that they were endowed with:
- The bulk of the peasants lived according to the rules of the “Walashian” law, which took that villagers life as a basis when they lived in a rural free community. Possession of land was common on a single right.
- The remaining mass of peasants submitted to serfdom, which was thought out by the feudal lords.
If we talk about the Wallachian community, then there were all the features of the serfdom of Moldova. Each community member had the right to work on the land only a few days a year. When the feudal lords took possession of the serfs, they imposed such a burden on the days of work that it was really possible to fulfill it only for a long time. Of course, the peasants had to perform duties that went to the prosperity of the church and the state itself. Serf peasants who lived in the 14th - 15th century split into groups:
- State peasants who depended on the king;
- Private peasants who depended on a certain feudal lord.
The first group of peasants had much more rights. The second group was considered free, with its personal right to move to another feudal lord, but such peasants paid tithe, served serfdom and were tried by the feudal lord. This situation was close to the complete enslavement of all peasants.
In the following centuries, various groups of peasants appeared who were dependent on the feudal mode and its cruelty.The way the serfs lived, simply horrified, because they did not have any rights and freedoms.
Enslavement of the peasants
In the period of 1766, Grigory Gike issued a law on the complete enslavement of all peasants. No one had the right to move from the boyars to others, the fugitives quickly returned to their places by the police. All serf oppression intensified taxes and duties. Taxes levied on any activity of the peasants.
But even all this oppression and fear did not suppress the spirit of freedom among the peasants, who rebelled against their slavery. After all, otherwise serfdom is difficult to name. The way the peasants lived in the era of the feudal fret was not immediately forgotten. Unrestrained feudal oppression remained in the memory and did not give the peasants a long time to restore their rights. There was a long struggle for the right to a free life. The struggle of the peasants' strong spirit has perpetuated itself in history, and it is still striking in its facts.