How do the verbs change?
A verb is a part of speech by which a condition or action of a subject is designated. For example: walk, fly, work, rejoice, be indignant, grow bolder. Read more about the verbs in the article.
And about what verbs are - in the articles What are verbs, How to determine the type of verb.
How do the verbs change? In Russian, the verbs vary in tense, number, person, gender, species, voice, mood. The initial form of the verb answers the questions what to do? what to do? and ends with the suffix -t. The verb is changed by adding a prefix to it, a suffix and changing its ending.
How do past tense verbs change?
The verb in the Russian language can be used in three different tense forms - present, past and future tense. To refresh the memory of the verb tense category, you can read the article How to determine the tense of a verb.
Past tense verbs indicate that the action took place sometime earlier. To get the past tense of the verb, it is necessary to reject the suffix -t from its initial form and put the suffix -l (to walk - to walk, to rejoice - to rejoice).
In the past tense, the verbs change in numbers: walk (singular, if the action is performed by one subject) - walk (plural, if the action is performed by several subjects). Singular verbs also vary by gender - walked (masculine), walked (feminine), walked (neuter).
To determine the suffix that must be in the past tense of the verb before the suffix -l, you need to see which vowel stands in the initial form before the suffix -t. For example: walk - walk, fly - fly. Less obvious examples: glue - glue, sow - sow, hear - hear.
How do the verbs of present and future tense change?
In the present and future tenses, verbs vary in faces and numbers. In total there are three persons (first, second and third) and two numbers (singular and plural). Changing the verb by person is necessary in order to be able to express the action of the person speaking (the first person is happy), the interlocutor (the second person is happy), or those not participating in the dialogue (the third person is happy). The verb is changed in numbers if it is a question of the state or action of one subject (singular) or a group of subjects (plural).
Changing verbs by faces and numbers is called conjugation of verbs.Verb conjugation is done by changing their personal endings.
In Russian, there are two verb conjugations - the first (denoted by the Roman numeral I) and the second (II). They differ from each other just in that they have different personal endings.
Verbs I conjugations have the endings:
- - y fly, fly).
Personal endings of verbs II conjugations:
- -y, -y, -it, -im, -ite, -at (-yat) - (glue, glue, glue, glue, glue, glue).
Verb conjugation should be determined when it is necessary to figure out which vowel is e or u, u or i is written in an unstressed ending. The greatest number of errors is encountered when writing exclusion words (drives, hates). If you have already forgotten to which conjugation a verb you are interested in, read the article How to determine the conjugation of a verb.
It should also be noted that in Russian there are several verbs that are conjugated part by I, part by II conjugation. The most used of these verbs - to want and run. The verb "to want" in a single person has the endings of the first conjugation, in the plural second. The verb "run" is conjugated by II conjugation. The exception is the third person plural (run).
Change of verbs by type, voice, mood
In Russian, there are two types of verbs - perfect and imperfect. The perfect view is used when the action is already completed, imperfect, when the action is carried out at the moment. To get the verb of the perfect form, it must be changed so that it begins to answer the question what to do? (in most cases - add a prefix): work - earn.
The verb's pledge is called valid if the action expressed by the verb is directed to another object, passive if the action is directed to the speaker himself. The passive voice is obtained by adding postfix to the verb -x (stop - stop).
Verbs in Russian can be used in three moods. If the verb denotes an action that occurs in time (in the past, future or present), then it is in the indicative mood (all the above examples). If the action can occur only under some conditions, then the verbs of conditional mood are applied. To get the conditional inclination, the particle would be added to the verb “would” (go - go).If a person induces his interlocutor to any action, he uses the imperative mood of the verb. Most often, in the imperative mood, the verb is placed in the second person (go, rejoice).