A constitutional monarchy. The dualistic type of state administration
Constitutional monarchy is a kind ofgovernment controlled. At the same time, the state has independent courts and parliament. The power of the ruler is limited by the constitution. Characteristic features of this type of management are the civil list and the signature.
The last is the binding of the act of the ruler with the signatureminister or head of government. The counter-signature indicates that responsibility (both political and legal) for this act is borne by the person who has cemented it. Formally, this is due to the fact that the monarch himself, being the head of state, is not responsible for his actions. The counter-signature was introduced in the beginning of the 18th century in England. Thus, an effective means of limiting royalty was created. Since the appearance of the counter-signature, the monarchical form of government has finally won in England and a number of other countries.
A civil sum is a sum of money thateach year is allocated for the maintenance of the king. The amount of payment is established with the accession of each king to the throne. Subsequently, the amount of money can be increased, but not reduced.
In accordance with the degree of restriction of royal power, there is a distinction between the parliamentary and dualistic structure of public administration.
In some Asian and African countriesa dualistic system operates. This, for example, such countries with a constitutional monarchy, like Morocco, Jordan and others. The dualistic system is considered the original form of the limited power of the king. Its peculiarity is the concentration in the hands of the ruler of more powers.
The dualistic constitutional monarchy is a historical transitional stage from absolutism to a parliamentary form of limited government control.
With the dualistic type of controlthe legislative power (in principle) belongs to the parliament. It is chosen by subjects or a certain part of them (in the case of a censored electoral right). The executive power is concentrated in the hands of the king. He realizes it either directly by himself, or through the government. The judiciary also belongs to the king. However, it can be more or less independent.
Along with this, the separation of powers under this typemanagement, as a rule, incomplete. Despite the fact that laws are passed in parliament, the king has the right to impose an absolute veto. This act does not allow the enacted law to enter into force. In addition, the dualistic constitutional monarchy presupposes the unlimited power of the king to issue decrees. Thus, the ruler can take acts of "extraordinary character", whose strength is equal to the force of laws.
The main feature of the dualistic system is the right of the King to dissolve the parliament, introducing absolutism in the state.
If the structure assumes the existencegovernment, it is responsible for its actions only to the king. Parliament can influence the government only with the help of its rule to establish a state budget. It should be noted that this is a fairly powerful method of exposure only once a year. Together with this, when entering into conflict with the government, the deputies are under constant threat of dissolution of the parliament.
Dualistic constitutional monarchyis characterized by the existence of an authoritarian political regime. The state regime experts characterize as a compromise between the "ruling top" and the rest of society, where the king still prevails with his entourage.
Among the modern states-representativesDualistic type of management should be called Thailand. In his constitution, it is written that the king ascends to the throne, not by law, but "in accordance with a respected tradition" and no punishments apply to him.